UK and US regulators will force four institutions – Barclays, RBS, Citi and JP Morgan – to plead guilty to manipulating currency rates.The British banks alone will have to pay a little under £3bn for their role in the scandal. It will come as another blow to the industry’s already shattered reputation following a string of misconduct charges in the wake of the financial crisis. ‘Each time a bank is fined it adds another layer of mistrust,’ said Tim Howarth, banking regulation partner at KPMG. ‘This in turn means politicians are better placed to talk about banker bonuses, bank levies and generally higher taxes for the industry.’
Other banks, including HSBC, have already been fined for failing to stop traders rigging the foreign exchange market.